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Lipopeptides (LPs) have been reported to be produced by distinctively diﬀerent groups of bacteria and fungi, and
these compounds were found to exert roles in antagonistic interactions with other organisms, e.g., plant pathogenicity and
antifungal, antibacterial, antiviral, and antitumor properties. In particular, LPs of the surfactin, iturin, and fengycin families are
important metabolites produced by the bacterial strain Bacillus sp., and their involvement in disease control has been widely
reported. However, linear lipodipeptides, especially lipotetrapeptides possessing three Leu and Glu amino acids along with a new fatty acid residue, have been unprecedented from natural sources.
Figure: Structures of gageotetrins A−C(1−3).
As part of our continuous exploration of bioactive secondarymetabolites from marine-derived bacteria, we isolated the strain 109GGC020 from marine sediment samples collected from Gageocho, Republic of Korea, which revealed 100% 16S rRNA sequencing similarity to Bacillus subtilis. The unicellular bacterium was cultured, and the fermentation broth (100 L) was extracted with EtOAC. Thereafter, the chromatographic separation of the EtOAC extract using ﬂash column chromatography in combination with semipreparative and analytical HPLC yielded a novel class of linear lipopeptides, gageotetrins A (3.2 mg), B (5.6 mg), and C (2.8 mg)